Each page in oTree can contain a form, which the player should fill out and submit by clicking the “Next” button. To create a form, first go to and define fields on your Player or Group. Then, in your Page class, you can choose which of these fields to include in the form. You do this by setting form_model = 'player', or form_model = 'group', and then set form_fields to the list of fields you want in your form.


In January 2018, the syntax changed from form_model = models.Player to form_model = 'player'. See oTree 2.0 for more information.

When the user submits the form, the submitted data is automatically saved to the field in your model.

For example, here is a

class Group(BaseGroup):
    f1 = models.BooleanField()
    f2 = models.BooleanField()

class Player(BasePlayer):
    f1 = models.BooleanField()
    f2 = models.BooleanField()

And a corresponding that defines the form on each page:

class Page1(Page):
    form_model = 'player'
    form_fields = ['f1', 'f2'] # this means player.f1, player.f2

class Page2(Page):
    form_model = 'group'
    form_fields = ['f1', 'f2'] # this means group.f1, group.f2

Forms in templates

You should include form fields by using a {% formfield %} element:

{% formfield player.contribution label="How much do you want to contribute?" %}

An alternative to using label is to define label on the model field:

class Player(BasePlayer):
    contribution = models.CurrencyField(
        label="How much do you want to contribute?")


Prior to January 2018, label was called verbose_name. See oTree 2.0 for more information.

Then you can just put this in your template:

{% formfield player.contribution %}

Or, if you have multiple form fields, you can insert them all at once:

{% for field in form %}
    {% formfield field %}
{% endfor %}

Note: If you have written HTML forms before, you may be accustomed to writing the <input> element, e.g. <input type="text" name="contribution">. In oTree, it’s usually easier to use formfield instead. It will autogenerate the correct <input> HTML, along with CSS styling, label, and error messages. However, if you want more flexibility you are free to write the raw HTML. See Raw HTML widgets.

Simple form field validation

The player must submit a valid form before they go to the next page. If the form they submit is invalid (e.g. missing or incorrect values), it will be re-displayed to them along with the list of errors they need to correct.


oTree automatically validates all input submitted by the user. For example, if you have a form containing a IntegerField, oTree will not let the user submit values that are not positive integers, like -1, 1.5, or hello.

min and max

For example, is how you would require an integer to be between 12 and 24:

# in
offer = models.IntegerField(min=12, max=24)

If the max/min are not fixed, you should use {field_name}_max()


If you want a field to be a dropdown menu with a list of choices, set choices=:

# in
level = models.IntegerField(
    choices=[1, 2, 3],

To use radio buttons instead of a dropdown menu, you should set the widget to RadioSelect or RadioSelectHorizontal:

# in
level = models.IntegerField(
    choices=[1, 2, 3],

If the list of choices needs to be determined dynamically, use {field_name}_choices()

You can also set display names for each choice by making a list of [value, display] pairs:

# in
level = models.IntegerField(
        [1, 'Low'],
        [2, 'Medium'],
        [3, 'High'],

If you do this, users will just see a menu with “Low”, “Medium”, “High”, but their responses will be recorded as 1, 2, or 3.

After the field has been set, you can access the human-readable name using get_FOO_display , like this: self.get_level_display() # returns e.g. 'Medium'. However, if you define the choices dynamically with {field_name}_choices(), in order to use get_*_display() you need to also define the *_choices method on the Player/Group in

Optional fields

If a field is optional, you can use blank=True like this:

# in
offer = models.IntegerField(blank=True)

Then the HTML field will not have the required attribute.

Dynamic form field validation

The min, max, and choices described above are only for fixed (constant) values.

If you want them to be determined dynamically (e.g. different from player to player), then you can instead define one of the below methods in your Page class in


Like setting choices= in, this will set the choices for the form field (e.g. the dropdown menu or radio buttons).

Here is an example where we randomly shuffle the choices:


import random

class MyPage(Page):

    form_model = 'player'
    form_fields = ['fruit']

    def fruit_choices(self):
        choices = ['apple', 'kiwi', 'mango']
        return choices


The dynamic alternative to setting max= in For example:

class MyPage(Page):

    form_model = 'player'
    form_fields = ['offer']

    def offer_max(self):
        return self.player.endowment


The dynamic alternative to setting min in


This is the most flexible method for validating a field.

For example, let’s say your form has an integer field called odd_negative, which must be odd and negative: You would enforce this as follows:

class MyPage(Page):

    form_model = 'player'
    form_fields = ['odd_negative']

    def odd_negative_error_message(self, value):
        print('value is', value)
        is_odd = (value % 2 == 1)
        is_negative = (value < 0)
        if not (is_odd and is_negative):
            return 'Must be odd and negative'

Validating multiple fields together

Let’s say you have 3 integer fields in your form whose names are int1, int2, and int3, and the values submitted must sum to 100. You can enforce this with the error_message method:

class MyPage(Page):

    form_model = 'player'
    form_fields = ['int1', 'int2', 'int3']

    def error_message(self, values):
        print('values is', values)
        if values["int1"] + values["int2"] + values["int3"] != 100:
            return 'The numbers must add up to 100'

If a field was left blank (and you set blank=True), its value here will be None.

Determining form fields dynamically

If you need the list of form fields to be dynamic, instead of form_fields you can define a method get_form_fields(self) that returns the list. For example:

class MyPage(Page):

    form_model = 'player'
    def get_form_fields(self):
        if self.player.num_bids == 3:
            return ['bid_1', 'bid_2', 'bid_3']
            return ['bid_1', 'bid_2']

But if you do this, you must make sure your template also contains conditional logic so that the right formfield elements are included.

You can do this by looping through each field in the form. oTree passes a variable form to each template, which you can loop through like this:

<!-- in your HTML template -->
{% for field in form %}
    {% formfield field %}
{% endfor %}

(If you need more complex looping logic than this, then consider not using {% formfield %} and instead writing the raw HTML for the <input> elements; see Radio buttons in tables and other custom layouts.)

form is a special variable. It is a Django form object, which is an iterable whose elements are Django form field objects. formfield can take as an argument a Django field object, or it can be an expression like {% formfield %} and {% formfield %}, but must be written explicitly rather than assigning somevar = and then doing {% formfield somevar %}.

If you use this technique, you should consider setting label on your model fields (see Forms in templates).


The full list of form input widgets offered by Django is here.

oTree additionally offers:

  • RadioSelectHorizontal (same as RadioSelect but with a horizontal layout, as you would see with a Likert scale)
  • Slider
    • To specify the step size, do: Slider(attrs={'step': '0.01'})
    • To disable the current value from being displayed, do: Slider(show_value=False)

Alternatives to oTree’s {% formfield %}

It’s not mandatory to use oTree’s {% formfield %} element. If you want to customize the appearance or behavior of your widgets, you can use one of the approaches below.

Django fields

If the field rendered by the {% formfield %} tag is not to your liking, you can use Django’s manual field rendering, described here.

Radio buttons in tables and other custom layouts

Let’s say you have a set of IntegerField in your model:

class Player(BasePlayer):

    offer_1 = models.IntegerField(widget=widgets.RadioSelect, choices=[1,2,3])
    offer_2 = models.IntegerField(widget=widgets.RadioSelect, choices=[1,2,3])
    offer_3 = models.IntegerField(widget=widgets.RadioSelect, choices=[1,2,3])
    offer_4 = models.IntegerField(widget=widgets.RadioSelect, choices=[1,2,3])
    offer_5 = models.IntegerField(widget=widgets.RadioSelect, choices=[1,2,3])

And you’d like to present them as a likert scale, where each option is in a separate column.

(First, try to reduce the code duplication in by following the instructions in How to make many fields.)

Because the options must be in separate table cells, the ordinary RadioSelectHorizontal widget will not work here.

Instead, you should simply loop over the choices in the field as follows:

    <td>{{ form.offer_1.label }}</td>
{% for choice in form.offer_1 %}
    <td>{{ choice }}</td>
{% endfor %}


This feature is only available in oTree 2.0 and higher.

(Note that you have to do form.my_field, rather than the usual player.my_field.)

If you have many fields with the same number of choices, you can arrange them in a table:

<table class="table">
    {% for field in form %}
            <th>{{ field.label }}</th>
            {% for choice in field %}
                <td>{{ choice }}</td>
            {% endfor %}
    {% endfor %}

You can also get choices individually by using their 0-based index, e.g. {{ form.my_field.0 }} gives you the radio button of the first choice. For more granular control, as described here, you can use the choice_label and tag attributes on a field choice.

Raw HTML widgets

For maximum flexibility, you can skip {% formfield %} and Django’s form widgets, and write the raw HTML for any form input. Just ensure that each field in your Page’s form_fields has a corresponding <input> element with a matching name attribute.

Raw HTML example: custom user interface with JavaScript

Let’s say you don’t want users to fill out form fields, but instead interact with some sort of visual app, like a clicking on a chart or playing a graphical game. Or, you want to record extra data like how long they spent on part of the page, how many times they clicked, etc.

You can build these interfaces in any front-end framework you want. Simple ones can be done with jQuery; more complex ones would use something like React or Polymer.

Then, use JavaScript to record the relevant data points and store it in a hidden form field. For example:

my_hidden_input = models.IntegerField()

form_fields = ['my_hidden_input']

# HTML template
<input type="hidden" name="my_hidden_input"
    value="5" id="id_my_hidden_input"/>

Then you can use JavaScript to set the value of that input, by selecting the element by id id_my_hidden_input, and setting its value attribute.

When the page is submitted, the value of your hidden input will be recorded in oTree like any other form field.


Button that submits the form

If your page only contains 1 decision, you could omit the {% next_button %} and instead have the user click on one of several buttons to go to the next page.

For example, let’s say your has offer_accepted = models.BooleanField(), and rather than a radio button you’d like to present it as a button like this:


First, put offer_accepted in your Page’s form_fields as usual. Then put this code in the template (the btn classes are just for Bootstrap styling):

{% block content %}

    <p><b>Do you wish to accept the offer?</b></p>
        <button name="offer_accepted" value="True" class="btn btn-primary btn-large">Yes</button>
        <button name="offer_accepted" value="False" class="btn btn-primary btn-large">No</button>

{% endblock %}

You can use this technique for any type of field, not just BooleanField.

Button that doesn’t submit the form

If the button has some purpose other than submitting the form, add type="button" to the <button>:

{% block content %}

        Clicking this will submit the form

    <button type="button">
        Clicking this will not submit the form

{% endblock %}

Miscellaneous & advanced

Forms with a dynamic vector of fields

Let’s say you want a form with a vector of n fields that are identical, except for some numerical index, e.g.:

contribution[1], contribution[2], ..., contribution[n]

Furthermore, suppose n is variable (can range from 1 to N).

Currently in oTree, you can only define a fixed number of fields in a model. So, you should define in N fields (contribution_1...contribution_N...), and then use get_form_fields as described above to dynamically return a list with the desired subset of these fields.

For example, let’s say the above variable n is actually an IntegerField on the player, which gets set dynamically at some point in the game. You can use get_form_fields like this:

class MyPage(Page):

    form_model = 'player'
    def get_form_fields(self):
        return ['contribution_{}'.format(i) for i in range(1, self.player.n + 1)]

Form fields with dynamic labels

If the label should contain a variable, you can construct the string in

class Contribute(Page):
    form_model = 'player'
    form_fields = ['contribution']

    def vars_for_template(self):
        return {
            'contribution_label': 'How much of your {} do you want to contribute?'.format(self.player.endowment)

Then in the template, set the label to this variable:

{% formfield player.contribution label=contribution_label %}

If you use this technique, you may also want to use Dynamic form field validation.