Part 1: Public goods game

We will now create a simple public goods game. The public goods game is a classic game in economics.

This is a three player game where each player is initially endowed with 100 points. Each player individually makes a decision about how many of their points they want to contribute to the group. The combined contributions are multiplied by 2, and then divided evenly three ways and redistributed back to the players.

The full code for the app we will write is here.

Upgrade oTree

To ensure you are using the latest version of oTree, open your command window and run:

pip3 install -U otree

Create the app

Use your command line to cd to the oTree project folder you created, the one that contains requirements_base.txt.

In this folder, create the public goods app:

$ otree startapp my_public_goods

Then in PyCharm, go to the folder my_public_goods that was created.


Open This file contains the game’s data models (player, group, subsession) and constant parameters.

First, let’s modify the Constants class to define our constants and parameters – things that are the same for all players in all games. (For more info, see Constants.)

  • There are 3 players per group. So, change players_per_group to 3. oTree will then automatically divide players into groups of 3.
  • The endowment to each player is 100 points. So, let’s define endowment and set it to c(100). (c() means it is a currency amount; see Money & Payoffs).
  • Each contribution is multiplied by 2. So let’s define multiplier and set it to 2:

Now we have:

class Constants(BaseConstants):
    name_in_url = 'my_public_goods'
    players_per_group = 3
    num_rounds = 1

    endowment = c(100)
    multiplier = 2

Now let’s think about the main entities in this game: the Player and the Group.

After the game is played, what data points will we need about each player? It’s important to record how much each person contributed. So, we define a field contribution, which is a currency (see Money & Payoffs):

class Player(BasePlayer):
    contribution = models.CurrencyField(min=0, max=Constants.endowment)

We also need to record the payoff the user makes at the end of the game, but we don’t need to explicitly define a payoff field, because it’s automatically added to every Player model.

What data points are we interested in recording about each group? We might be interested in knowing the total contributions to the group, and the individual share returned to each player. So, we define those 2 fields:

class Group(BaseGroup):
    total_contribution = models.CurrencyField()
    individual_share = models.CurrencyField()

Define the template

This game has 2 pages:

  • Page 1: players decide how much to contribute
  • Page 2: players are told the results

In this section we will define the HTML templates to display the game.

So, let’s make 2 HTML files under templates/my_public_goods/.

The first is Contribute.html, which contains a brief explanation of the game, and a form field where the player can enter their contribution.

{% extends "global/Page.html" %}
{% load static otree %}

{% block title %} Contribute {% endblock %}

{% block content %}

        This is a public goods game with
        {{ Constants.players_per_group }} players per group,
        an endowment of {{ Constants.endowment }},
        and a multiplier of {{ Constants.multiplier }}.

    {% formfield player.contribution label="How much will you contribute?" %}

    {% next_button %}

{% endblock %}

(For more info on how to write a template, see Templates.)

The second template will be called Results.html. This page will be shown after the game finished, after we have determined the user’s payoff. (later in this tutorial, we will define this payoff function).

{% extends "global/Page.html" %}
{% load static otree %}

{% block title %} Results {% endblock %}

{% block content %}

        You started with an endowment of {{ Constants.endowment }},
        of which you contributed {{ player.contribution }}.
        Your group contributed {{ group.total_contribution }},
        resulting in an individual share of {{ group.individual_share }}.
        Your profit is therefore {{ player.payoff }}.

    {% next_button %}

{% endblock %}


Now we define our pages, which contain the logic for how to display the HTML templates. (For more info, see Pages.)

Since we have 2 templates, we need 2 Page classes in The names should match those of the templates (Contribute and Results).

First let’s define Contribute. This page contains a form, so we need to define form_model and form_fields. Specifically, this form should let you set the contribution field on the player. (For more info, see Forms.)

class Contribute(Page):

    form_model = 'player'
    form_fields = ['contribution']

Now we define Results. This page doesn’t have a form so our class definition can be empty (with the pass keyword).

class Results(Page):

We are almost done, but one more page is needed. After a player makes a contribution, they cannot see the results page right away; they first need to wait for the other players to contribute. You therefore need to add a WaitPage. When a player arrives at a wait page, they must wait until all other players in the group have arrived. Then everyone can proceed to the next page. (For more info, see Wait pages).

When all players have completed the Contribute page, the players’ payoffs can be calculated. You can trigger this calculation inside the the after_all_players_arrive method on the WaitPage, which automatically gets called when all players have arrived at the wait page. We can access the current group with (for more info about self, see Conceptual overview).

class ResultsWaitPage(WaitPage):

    def after_all_players_arrive(self):
        group =
        players = group.get_players()
        contributions = [p.contribution for p in players]
        group.total_contribution = sum(contributions)
        group.individual_share = group.total_contribution * Constants.multiplier / Constants.players_per_group
        for p in players:
            p.payoff = Constants.endowment - p.contribution + group.individual_share

Now we specify the order in which the pages are shown:

page_sequence = [

Define the session config in

Go to in the project’s root folder and add an entry to SESSION_CONFIGS.

        'name': 'my_public_goods',
        'display_name': "My Public Goods (Simple Version)",
        'num_demo_participants': 3,
        'app_sequence': ['my_public_goods'],
    # other session configs ...

Sync the database and run


$ otree devserver

Then open your browser to http://localhost:8000 to play the game.

Troubleshoot with print()

I often read messages on programming forums like, “My program is not working. I can’t find the mistake, even though I have spent hours looking at my code”.

When an experienced programmer encounters an error in their program, they don’t just re-read the code until they find an error; they interactively test their program.

The simplest way is using print() statements. If you don’t learn this technique, you won’t be able to program games effectively.

You just need to insert a line in your code like this:

print('group.total_contribution is',

Put this line in the part of your code that’s not working, such as the payoff function defined above. When you play the game in your browser and that code gets executed, your print statement will be displayed in your command prompt window (not in your web browser).

You can sprinkle lots of prints in your code (I like to print extra characters like @@@, to make it easier to find the print statements in my server output):

print('@@@@ in payoff function')
contributions = [p.contribution for p in players]
print('@@@@ contributions:', contributions)
group.total_contribution = sum(contributions)
group.individual_share = group.total_contribution * Constants.multiplier / Constants.players_per_group
print('@@@ individual share', group.individual_share)
for p in players:
    print('@@@ payoff before', p.payoff)
    p.payoff = Constants.endowment - p.contribution + group.individual_share
    print('@@@ payoff after', p.payoff)

If you don’t see the output in your console window, that means your code is not getting executed! (Which is why it isn’t working.)

Maybe it’s because your code is inside an “if” statement that is always False. Or maybe your code is in a function that never gets called (executed).

Make changes while the server is running

Once you have the server running, try changing some text in Contribute.html or Results.html, then save the file and refresh your page. You will see the changes immediately.

Write a bot

Let’s write a bot that simulates a player playing the game we just programmed. Having a bot will save us a lot of work, because it can automatically test that the game still works each time we make changes.

Go to, and add this code in PlayerBot:

class PlayerBot(Bot):

    def play_round(self):
        yield (pages.Contribute, {'contribution': c(42)})
        yield (pages.Results)

This bot first submits the Contribute page with a contribution of 42, then submits the results page (to proceed to the next app).

From your command line, run:

otree test my_public_goods

You will see the output of the bots in the command line.

To make the bot play in your web browser, go to and add 'use_browser_bots': True to the session config, like this:

        'name': 'my_public_goods',
        'display_name': "My Public Goods (Simple Version)",
        'num_demo_participants': 3,
        'app_sequence': ['my_public_goods'],
        'use_browser_bots': True
    # other session configs ...

Now, when you create a new session and open the start links, it will play automatically.