Each page that your players see is defined by a Page class in (“views” is basically a synonym for “pages”).

Your must have a page_sequence variable that gives the order of the pages. For example:

page_sequence = [Start, Offer, Accept, Results]

If your game has multiple rounds, this sequence will be repeated. See Rounds for more info.

A Page class can have any of the following optional methods and attributes:


You can define this function to return True if the page should be shown, and False if the page should be skipped. If omitted, the page will be shown.

For example, to only show the page to P2 in each group:

class Page1(Page):
    def is_displayed(self):
        return self.player.id_in_group == 2

Or only show the page in round 1:

class Page1(Page):
    def is_displayed(self):
        return self.round_number == 1

If you need to repeat the same rule for many pages, see here.

is_displayed() may be executed more than once, so beware of code that relies on it only being executed once, e.g. incrementing a counter.


You can use this to return a dictionary of variable names and their values, which is passed to the template. Example:

class Page1(Page):
    def vars_for_template(self):
        return {'a': 1 + 1, 'b': * 10}

Then in the template you can access a and b like this:

Variables {{ a }} and {{ b }} ...

oTree automatically passes the following objects to the template: player, group, subsession, participant, session, and Constants. You can access them in the template like this: {{ Constants.blah }} or {{ player.blah }}.

If you need to pass the same variables to many pages, see here.


You shouldn’t generate random values in vars_for_template, because if the user refreshes their page, vars_for_template will be executed again, and the random calculation might return a different value. Instead, you should calculate random values in either creating_session, before_next_page, or after_all_players_arrive, each of which only executes once.


Here you define any code that should be executed after form validation, before the player proceeds to the next page.

If the page is skipped with is_displayed, then before_next_page will be skipped as well.


class Page1(Page):
    def before_next_page(self):
        self.player.tripled_payoff = self.player.bonus * 3


Each Page should have a file in templates/ with the same name. For example, if your app has this page in my_app/

class Page1(Page):

Then you should create a file my_app/templates/my_app/Page1.html, (note that my_app is repeated). See Templates for info on how to write an HTML template.

If the template needs to have a different name from your view class (e.g. you are sharing the same template for multiple views), set template_name. Example:

class Page1(Page):
    template_name = 'app_name/MyView.html'

timeout_seconds, timeout_submission, etc

See Timeouts

Randomizing page sequence

You can randomize the order of pages using rounds. An example is here.