Here are things for Django developers to know about oTree.

otree command

The otree command is a customized version of Django’s

In addition to the built-in Django management commands like startapp, oTree defines a few extra ones like resetdb, create_session, and prodserver.

Migrations and “resetdb”

You generally shouldn’t use makemigrations and migrate. Instead, run otree resetdb, which will reset and sync the database. If you need to preserve the database between updates, you can try the strategy mentioned in Modifying an existing database.

Project folder

The folder containing your games is a Django project, as explained here.

It comes pre-configured with all the files, settings and dependencies so that it works right away. You should create your apps inside this folder.


oTree doesn’t work with Gunicorn, mod_wsgi, or any other typical WSGI server. Because it uses Django Channels for WebSocket support, it should be run with otree prodserver, which internally starts the Daphne server, several channels workers, and a task queue. More info here.


Auto-save of models

In oTree, you don’t need to explicitly call .save() on your models; oTree will do it automatically (it uses an idmap cache). However, this auto-save feature does not apply to custom models or pages that don’t inherit from oTree’s, or custom WebSocket/AJAX code. In that case, you have to remember to save your database models yourself as you would in a regular Django project.

You will also need to figure out how to query your models using Django’s ORM and the model’s pk/code, etc.

Misc notes on models

  • null=True and default=None are not necessary in your model field declarations; in oTree fields are null by default.

  • initial is an alias for default in a model field’s kwargs.

  • label is an alias for verbose_name in a model field’s kwargs.

Adding custom pages & URLs

You can create URLs and views that are independent of oTree, using Django’s URL dispatcher and views.

First, define the view function in one of your project modules.

# In my_app.pages
from django.http import HttpResponse

def my_view(request):
    return HttpResponse('This is a custom view')

Create a file in your project root. In this file, put:

from django.urls import path
from otree.urls import urlpatterns
import my_app.pages

urlpatterns.append(path('my_view/', my_app.pages.my_view))

In your, set ROOT_URLCONF to point to the that you just created:


Real-time and WebSockets


oTree 2.6 has a feature called live pages, which are an easier way of adding real-time functionality to your app. Before using Django Channels, see if you can accomplish it using live pages.


This section is for advanced programmers who want to use oTree’s internal and unsupported features.

oTree uses Django channels for real-time (WebSocket) functionality. You can add your own real-time interactions such as a continuous-time market.

As of September 2019, we use Django Channels 2.x. (Previously, oTree used Django Channels 0.17.3.)

Django Channels 2.x has many API changes. Any existing oTree apps that depend on the old version of Channels will break when you upgrade.

This article lists the differences in the new version of channels. In particular:

  • channels.Group no longer exists. Instead, you use group_add and group_send.

  • If your functions are not async, you need to wrap group_add and group_send in async_to_sync.

  • If you want to send to a group from or, you use get_channel_layer(), then do group_send. Rather than sending JSON to the websocket directly, you invoke a method on your consumer class, by adding "type": "your_method_name" to the event. See here (don’t be confused by dots in type names, they just get converted to underscores).

The “ChatConsumer” example here is a good simple example showing the new API.

You also need to define websocket routes (which are like URL patterns that decide which consumer to run). You can put them in a module called your_app/otree_extensions/ You should make a list of routes called websocket_routes (not channel_routing like before). Then in, set EXTENSION_APPS = ['your_app'].

See otree.channels.consumers to see how oTree queries and saves models inside consumers.

If you are building your app for long-term stability, beware of importing anything from otree.channels into your code. Like anything outside of otree.api, it may be removed abruptly.

In addition to upgrading to Channels 2.x, we have upgraded the ReconnectingWebSocket library used internally from this to this. The API may differ in some places.