An oTree app has 3 data models: Subsession, Group, and Player.

A player is part of a group, which is part of a subsession. See Conceptual overview.

Let’s say you want your experiment to generate data that looks like this:

name    age is_student
John    30  False
Alice   22  True
Bob     35  False

Here is how to define the above table structure:

class Player(BasePlayer):
    name = models.StringField()
    age = models.IntegerField()
    is_student = models.BooleanField()

So, a model is essentially a database table. And a field is a column in a table.


Field types

  • BooleanField (for true/false and yes/no values)
  • CurrencyField for currency amounts; see Currency.
  • IntegerField
  • FloatField (for real numbers)
  • StringField (for text strings)
  • LongStringField (for long text strings; its form widget is a multi-line textarea)

Initial/default value

Your field’s initial value will be None, unless you set initial=:

class Player(BasePlayer):
    some_number = models.IntegerField(initial=0)

min, max, choices

For info on how to set a field’s min, max, or choices, see Simple form field validation.

Built-in fields and methods

Player, group, and subsession already have some predefined fields. For example, Player has fields called payoff and id_in_group, as well as methods like in_all_rounds() and get_others_in_group().

These built-in fields and methods are listed below.



Gives the current round number. Only relevant if the app has multiple rounds (set in C.NUM_ROUNDS). See Rounds.


Returns a list of all the groups in the subsession.


Returns a list of all the players in the subsession.



Automatically assigned integer starting from 1. In multiplayer games, indicates whether this is player 1, player 2, etc.


The player’s payoff in this round. See payoffs.


Gives the current round number.



The number of participants in the session.


See Session fields.



The participant’s ID in the session. This is the same as the player’s id_in_subsession.

Other participant attributes and methods


C is the recommended place to put your app’s parameters and constants that do not vary from player to player.

Here are the built-in constants:

  • PLAYERS_PER_GROUP (described in Groups)
  • NUM_ROUNDS (described in Rounds)

if you don’t want your app’s real name to be displayed in URLs, define a string constant NAME_IN_URL with your desired name.

Constants can be numbers, strings, booleans, lists, etc. But for more complex data types like dicts, lists of dicts, etc, you should instead define it in a function. For example, instead of defining a Constant called my_dict, do this:

def my_dict(subsession):
    return dict(a=[1,2], b=[3,4])