Wait pages

Wait pages are necessary when one player needs to wait for others to take some action before they can proceed. For example, in an ultimatum game, player 2 cannot accept or reject before they have seen player 1’s offer.

If you have a WaitPage in your sequence of pages, then oTree waits until all players in the group have arrived at that point in the sequence, and then all players are allowed to proceed.

If your subsession has multiple groups playing simultaneously, and you would like a wait page that waits for all groups (i.e. all players in the subsession), you can set the attribute wait_for_all_groups = True on the wait page.

For more information on groups, see Groups.

Wait pages can define the following methods:


after_all_players_arrive will be executed once all players have arrived at the wait page. This is a good place to set the players’ payoffs or determine the winner. You should first define a method on the group, then call it here:

def after_all_players_arrive(self):

If you set wait_for_all_groups = True, then you should define a method on the subsession and call that.


Works the same way as with regular pages.

If some players in the group skip the wait page, then after_all_players_arrive() may not be run.


If you set group_by_arrival_time = True on a WaitPage, players will be grouped in the order they arrive at that wait page:

class MyWaitPage(WaitPage):
    group_by_arrival_time = True

For example, if players_per_group = 2, the first 2 players to arrive at the wait page will be grouped together, then the next 2 players, and so on.

This is useful in sessions where some participants might drop out (e.g. online experiments, or experiments with consent pages that let the participant quit early), or sessions where some participants take much longer than others.

A typical way to use group_by_arrival_time is to put it after an app that filters out participants. For example, if your session has a consent page that gives participants the chance to opt out of the study, you can make a “consent” app that just contains the consent pages, and then have an app_sequence like ['consent', 'my_game'], where my_game uses group_by_arrival_time. This means that if someone opts out in consent, they will be excluded from the grouping in my_game.

If a game has multiple rounds, you may want to only group by arrival time in round 1:

class MyWaitPage(WaitPage):
    group_by_arrival_time = True

    def is_displayed(self):
        return self.round_number == 1

If you do this, then subsequent rounds will keep the same group structure as round 1. Otherwise, players will be re-grouped by their arrival time in each round. (group_by_arrival_time copies the group structure to future rounds.)


  • id_in_group is not necessarily assigned in the order players arrived at the page.

  • group_by_arrival_time can only be used if the wait page is the first page in page_sequence

  • If you use is_displayed on a page with group_by_arrival_time, it should only be based on the round number. Don’t use is_displayed to show the page to some players but not others.

  • If group_by_arrival_time = True, then in creating_session, all players will initially be in the same group. Groups are only created “on the fly” as players arrive at the wait page.

If you need further control on arranging players into groups, use get_players_for_group().


If you’re using group_by_arrival_time and want more control over which players are assigned together, you can use get_players_for_group().

Let’s say that in addition to grouping by arrival time, you need each group group to consist of 1 man and 1 woman (or 2 “A” players and 2 “B” players, etc).

If you define a method called get_players_for_group, it will get called whenever a new player reaches the wait page. The method’s argument is the list of players who are waiting to be grouped (minus those who have disconnected or closed the page). If you select some of these players and return them as a list, those players will be assigned to a group, and move forward. If you don’t return anything, then no grouping occurs.

Here’s an example where each group has 2 A players, 2 B players.

class GroupingWaitPage(WaitPage):
    group_by_arrival_time = True

    def get_players_for_group(self, waiting_players):
        print('in get_players_for_group')
        a_players = [p for p in waiting_players if p.participant.vars['type'] == 'A']
        b_players = [p for p in waiting_players if p.participant.vars['type'] == 'B']

        if len(a_players) >= 2 and len(b_players) >= 2:
            print('about to create a group')
            return [a_players[0], a_players[1], b_players[0], b_players[1]]
        print('not enough players to create a group')

    def is_displayed(self):
        return self.round_number == 1

Preventing players from getting stuck on wait pages

A common problem especially with online experiments is players getting stuck waiting for another player in their group who dropped out or is too slow.

Here are some things you can do to reduce this problem:

Use group_by_arrival_time

As described above, you can use group_by_arrival_time so that only players who are actively playing around the same time get grouped together.

group_by_arrival_time works well if used after a “lock-in” task. In other words, before your multiplayer game, you can have a single-player effort task. The idea is that a participant takes the effort to complete this initial task, they are less likely to drop out after that point.

Use page timeouts

Use timeout_seconds on each page, so that if a player is slow or inactive, their page will automatically advance. Or, you can manually force a timeout by clicking the “Advance slowest participants” button in the admin interface.

Customizing the wait page’s appearance

You can customize the text that appears on a wait page by setting the title_text and body_text attributes, e.g.:

class MyWaitPage(WaitPage):
    title_text = "Custom title text"
    body_text = "Custom body text"

See also: Custom wait page template.